There are only three fundamental ways that humanity can reduce it’s ecological footprint.
Reducing ecological footprint
Mathis Wackernagel, the creator of the Ecological Footprint concept, identified only three fundamental and complementary strategies for reducing ecological footprint below the biocapacity of the earth.
Improve the bio-productivity of nature in ways that are sustainable and harmless. Bio-productive areas can be increased through reforestation and soil management. The productivity of land can be increased through management techniques like permaculture, improved irrigation, organic farming and also things like edible gardens and solar panels.
Use harvested resources better by minimising waste, using energy-efficient technology and producing for local consumption. This is essentially about production.
Consume less by consuming less per person, and also by reducing population over time.
In a nutshell, society as a whole needs to produce and consume less.
This will involve a change of mindset and behaviour at both the macro-level of the whole economy and at the micro-level of the household economy.